The 3 Step Rule for Doing DNA Extraction
DNA is called sometimes as Blueprint of Life or Genetic Code, which for sure is not new to you. From bacteria, plants, animals and us Humans, all living organisms have DNA in their cells. DNA is the long molecule that is made up of nucleotides chain while the order of these nucleotides made these organisms similar to other species and yet, makes them unique to each other. Genes are the section within long DNA molecules are found.
You have to extract the DNA out of the cell first for the study to begin. In eukaryotic cells like plants and human cells, DNA is in an organized chromosome in the organelle which is referred as nucleus. When it comes to bacterial cells, you will find none of these so their DNA is organized in rings or perhaps, in circular plasmids, found in cytoplasm. The process for DNA extraction frees the DNA from cells and separating it from cellular fluid as well as proteins. Through this, the DNA in its purest form is what’s left.
The truth is, there are three basic procedures when doing DNA extraction and these include Lysis, Precipitation and Purification. Read on if you’re interested to know about these steps.
Step number 1. Lysis – in this step, the cell and the nucleus are broken open to be able to release the DNA inside. As a matter of fact, there are a couple of methods that scientists do to perform this and it’s by mechanical disruption and Lysis. When it comes to mechanical disruption, what it does is break open cells by making use of tissue homogenizer, with a pestle or mortar or by cutting tissues in smaller pieces. Plant cells have tougher cell walls which is why this procedure is extremely important on such subject.
Lysis on the other hand are using detergents as well as enzymes like Proteinase K in order to free the DNA and to dissolve the cellular proteins present in it.
Step number 2. Precipitation – when lysis step is done, DNA is now free from its nucleus but, there’s another challenge which is the fact that it’s mixed up with mashed up cells. The use of precipitation helps is separating DNA from cellular debris. To make the DNA molecules become less water soluble and more stable, sodium is applied to neutralize the negative charges. The DNA isn’t soluble in alcohol like isopropanol or ethanol and for that, it’s used to trigger precipitation.
Step number 3. Purification – after the DNA is separated from aqueous phase, it will now be rinsed using alcohol. This step will then remove the remaining cellular debris and unwanted materials. At this point, purified DNA is re-dissolved in water.